Tag Archives: Dylan Wiliam

I can elicit and use evidence of student thinking #NCTMP2A #LL2LU

We strive to grow in our understanding of the Eight Mathematics Teaching Practices from NCTM’s Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All. This research-informed framework of teaching and learning reflects a core set of high leverage practices and essential teaching skills necessary to promote deep learning of mathematics.

Elicit and use evidence of student thinking.

Effective teaching of mathematics uses evidence of student thinking to assess progress toward mathematical understanding and to adjust instruction continually in ways that support and extend learning.

In order to support our teaching teams as they stretch to learn more, we drafted the following learning progressions. We choose to provide a couple of pathways to focus teacher effort, understanding, and action.

When working with teacher teams to elicit and use evidence of student thinking, we refer to 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Mathematics Discussions by Peg Smith and Mary Kay Stein and Dylan Wiliam’s Embedding Formative Assessment: Practical Techniques for K-12 Classrooms along with Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All by Steve Leinwand.

To deepen our understanding around eliciting evidence of student thinking, we anticipate multiple ways learners might approach a task, empower learners to make their thinking visible, celebrate mistakes as opportunities to learn, and ask for more than one voice to contribute.

From  NCTM’s 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Mathematics Discussions, we know that we should do the math ourselves, anticipate what learners will produce, and brainstorm how we might select, sequence, and connect learners’ ideas.

How will classroom culture grow as we focus on the five key strategies we studied in Embedding Formative Assessment: Practical Techniques for F-12 Classrooms by Dylan Wiliam and Siobhan Leahy?

  • Clarify, share, and understand learning intentions and success criteria
  • Engineer effective discussions, tasks, and activities that elicit evidence of learning
  • Provide feedback that moves learning forward
  • Activate students as learning resources for one another
  • Activate students as owners of their own learning

We call questions that are designed to be part of an instructional sequence hinge questions because the lessons hinge on this point. If the check for understanding shows that all students have understood the concept, you can move on. If it reveals little understanding, the teacher might review the concept with the whole class; if there are a variety of responses, you can use the diversity in the class to get students to compare their answers. The important point is that you do not know what to do until the evidence of the students’ achievement is elicited and interpreted; in other words, the lesson hinges on this point. (Wiliam, 88 pag.)

To strengthen our understanding of using evidence of student thinking, we plan our hinge questions in advance, predict how we might sequence and connect, adjust instruction based on what we learn – in the moment and in the next team meeting – to advance learning for every student. We share data within our team to plan how we might differentiate to meet the needs of all learners.

How might we team to strengthen and deepen our commitment to ensuring mathematical success for all?

What if we anticipate, monitor, select, sequence, and connect student thinking?

How might we elicit and use evidence of student thinking to advance learning for every learner?

Cross posted on Easing the Hurry Syndrome


Leinwand, Steve. Principles to Actions: Ensuring Mathematical Success for All. Reston, VA.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2014. (p. 21) Print.

Stein, Mary Kay., and Margaret Smith. 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Mathematics Discussions. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.

Wiliam, Dylan; Leahy, Siobhan. Embedding Formative Assessment: Practical Techniques for F-12 Classrooms. (Kindle Locations 2191-2195). Learning Sciences International. Kindle Edition.

Reader’s Response: Learning to use learning progressions (reflections from 5th grade learners)

What if we design a lesson to orchestrate productive discussion, critique the reasoning of others, grow as readers and writers, and deepen understanding through reflection? How might we engineer effective discussions, tasks, and activities that elicit evidence of learning as we learn to provide feedback that moves learning forward.  Will this help activate students as learning resources for one another?

The 5th grade team invited me to co-labor with them to help our young learners deepen their understanding of reader’s response journals.  Using their readers response learning progressions, our 5th graders offered me feedback to help me grow as a reader-writer and to practice critiquing the reasoning of others.

Knowing how important it is to close the lesson with purpose, we asked our young learners to reflect using the following prompts.

Here are a few samples from their reflections.

  • I learned to pay attention to making sure I explain the book.  I learned to ask myself if I added quotes and page numbers.  An “ah ha” for me was when I learned about the importance of adding page numbers and quotes.
  • I learned to pay attention to the page numbers and the definitions of words. I learned to ask myself where are the mistakes in this and how can I make it better? An “ah ha” for me is to look up definitions of words I don’t understand.
  • I learned to pay attention to focusing a lot on text evidence. I learned to ask myself if I really did my best and met the level 3 requirements. An “ah ha” for me is to be able to link my writing and the book together.
  • I learned to pay attention to specific details and listening closely. I learned to ask myself questions about the text. An “ah ha” for me is critique versus criticism and constructive criticism.
  • I learned to pay attention to feedback I receive, because it will make my writing better.  I learned to ask myself about text evidence, making thinking visible, and formatting.  An “ah ha” for me is including text information in my writing at all times.

How will classroom culture grow as we strive to focus on the five key strategies we studied in Embedding Formative Assessment: Practical Techniques for F-12 Classrooms by Dylan Wiliam and Siobhan Leahy?

  • Clarify, share, and understand learning intentions and success criteria
  • Engineer effective discussions, tasks, and activities that elicit evidence of learning
  • Provide feedback that moves learning forward
  • Activate students as learning resources for one another
  • Activate students as owners of their own learning

Wiliam, Dylan; Leahy, Siobhan. Embedding Formative Assessment: Practical Techniques for F-12 Classrooms. (Kindle Locations 493-494). Learning Sciences International. Kindle Edition.

Reader’s Response: Learning to use learning progressions (my reflection)

What if we design a lesson to orchestrate productive discussion, critique the reasoning of others, grow as readers and writers, and deepen understanding through reflection?

The 5th grade team invited me to co-labor with them to help our young learners deepen their understanding of reader’s response journals. As a team, they are focused on implementing and deepening their understanding of these five strategies from Wilam and Leahy:

  • Clarify, share, and understand learning intentions and success criteria
  • Engineer effective discussions, tasks, and activities that elicit evidence of learning
  • Provide feedback that moves learning forward
  • Activate students as learning resources for one another
  • Activate students as owners of their own learning

Can we engineer learning experiences that orchestrate effective discussion and elicit evidence of learning? Can we empower our young learners to serve as learning resources for one another and deepen their own learning?

The plan called for crisp, quick moments to think, write, and talk. Using the learning intentions below, our young learners read a reader’s response entry from me and offered me critique.

First, they read my entry silently and analyzed it using the given success criteria.  Next, with a partner, they discussed what they read, what they thought, and if they agreed on their ratings? Then, we began to develop critique using the starters shown below.

After thinking and writing silently, partners shared their sentences. Then, they chose one sentence each to share aloud in the group. I heard important, informative feedback for every voice in the room.  Here are a few samples from their feedback.

  • I like how you included the definitions from the dictionary; I did not know what cur was. I wonder if it would be easier to understand if you told us what was going on and went in chronological order. What if you add a few more details to explain your thinking?
  • I like how you were descriptive, because it helped me understand a bit more. I wonder if you thought we had all read the book.  What if you include the title next time?
  • I like how you added the page numbers in our writing, because you really told us how/what page number it was so if we found the book and wanted to read a part, then we could just find the page really easily. I wonder what the title of the book is because it sounded interesting.  What if the title of the book was on the page, because it would really give us a quick summary of what the book was.
  • I like that you included a sketch, because it helped me think about the names Bud was called.  I wonder what Rule 118 is. What if you explain the connection to the text and your thinking?

Engineer effective discussions, tasks, and activities that elicit evidence of learning as we learn to provide feedback that moves learning forward.  Will this help activate students as learning resources for one another?


Wiliam, Dylan; Leahy, Siobhan. Embedding Formative Assessment: Practical Techniques for F-12 Classrooms. (Kindle Locations 493-494). Learning Sciences International. Kindle Edition.

Reader’s Response: Learning to use learning progressions (the plan)

How might we take action to deepen learning and empower students? What if we focus on the five key strategies we studied in Embedding Formative Assessment: Practical Techniques for F-12 Classrooms by Dylan Wiliam and Siobhan Leahy?The 5th grade team invited me to co-labor with them to help our young learners deepen their understanding of reader’s response journals. As a team, they are focused on implementing and deepening their understanding of these five strategies:

  • Clarify, share, and understand learning intentions and success criteria
  • Engineer effective discussions, tasks, and activities that elicit evidence of learning
  • Provide feedback that moves learning forward
  • Activate students as learning resources for one another
  • Activate students as owners of their own learning

On Thursday, they facilitated a lesson on making thinking visible and introduced the following to our young learners.

On Friday, I facilitated a lesson on using the above to improve and strengthen reader’s response journal entries.

What if we design a lesson to orchestrate productive discussion, critique the reasoning of others, grow as readers and writers, and deepen understanding through reflection?

Slide deck:


Wiliam, Dylan; Leahy, Siobhan. Embedding Formative Assessment: Practical Techniques for F-12 Classrooms. (Kindle Locations 493-494). Learning Sciences International. Kindle Edition.

T3 International Conference: sketch notes for learning

2016 T³ International Conference
February 26-28, 2016, Orlando, Florida

Dylan Wiliam: Leadership for Teacher Learning

“Nothing has bigger impact on student learning than formative assessment.” How might we learn, grow, and change our habits.  What if we expect proficiency for all and excellence for many? How might we focus on learning to impact outcomes?

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Dylan Wiliam: Using Formative Assessment to Improve Instruction

How might we impact learning? Know and show what is essential to learn. Seek evidence that learning occurs. Strengthen relationships with learner.  Ask: what will have the biggest impact for student learning?

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Dylan Wilam: Protocol for Questions

How might we elicit evidence of learning? 1) High quality task selection. 2) High quality task presentation. 3) Know what evidence we are looking for. 4)  Empower learners to accumulate evidence so show and now they are learning.

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Focus on learning: build a team – Embedding Formative Assessment VTR SPW

What if we collect evidence of progress to plan for next steps in learning?

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What if we take up a series of 30 Day Challenges: Step outside your comfort zone! as described in Justin Cahill’s linked post? Justin (@justybubpe) writes:

How about professionally? How can I apply the 30-day challenge to my job as a physical education teacher? How can I use this challenge to motivate my students? How can I take advantage of trying something new for 30 days to help bolster my planning and strengthen my curriculum? How will I answer all of these questions in under 30 days?

What if we focus on learning? When we set goals, are we committed to reaching them? What if we set micro-goals and action-steps that move our learning forward regularly?  How might we choose to team to step outside our comfort zone for 30 days to shift our practice to more formative assessment?

What if we choose to build a supportive accountability team to carve out moments for self- and peer-assessment?

Four weeks appears to be a minimum period of time for teachers to plan and carry out a new idea in their classroom. (Wiliam, 22 pag.)

How might we shift to grow from

a knowledge-giving business to a habit-changing business? (Wiliam, 19 pag.)

What if we try for 30 days?

Indeed, the evidence suggests that attention to classroom formative assessment can produce greater gains in achievement than any other change in what teachers do. (Wiliam, 11 pag.)

How might we try for 30 days?

Viewed from this perspective, choice is not a luxury but a necessity. (Wiliam, 15 pag.)


Cahill, Justin. “30 Day Challenges: Step outside Your Comfort Zone!” Keeping Kids in Motion. WordPress, 06 Jan. 2016. Web. 08 Jan. 2016.

Wiliam, Dylan, and Siobhán Leahy. Embedding Formative Assessment: Practical Techniques for F-12 Classrooms. West Palm Beach, FL: Learning Sciences, 2015. Print.

Agents of formative assessment – Embedding Formative Assessment VTR SPW

Anyone – teacher, learner, or peer – can be the agent of formative assessment. (Wiliam, 8 pag.)

I wonder if we have a common understanding of formative assessment.  I like the following from Dylan Wiliam and Paul Black (2009).

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…evidence elicited, interpreted, and used…to make decisions…

How might we empower every learner in our community to act as an agent of formative assessment?  What if we all use evidence of student learning to make decisions about next steps?

What if we team to clarify and share learning intentions and success criteria? How might we diagnose where learners are and start from there? While we already offer some feedback, what if we are intentional about the messaging in our feedback? Do learners know where they are now and where we want them to go next?

The third strategy emphasizes the teacher’s role in providing feedback to the students that tells them not only where they are but also what steps they need to take to move their learning forward. (Wiliam, 11 pag.)

How might we increase the frequency of feedback loops to offer feedback in the moment rather than the next day?

But the biggest impact happens with “short-cycle” formative assessment, which takes place not every six to ten weeks but every six to ten minutes, or even every six to ten seconds. (Wiliam, 9 pag.)

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If we want the biggest impact, we need help.  Are our learning intentions and success criteria clear and visible to learners? Do we offer moments for self- and peer-assessment? How might we grow in our ability to give high quality feedback that enables learners to move forward?

If anyone can be an agent of formative assessment, how might we team to offer big impact?


Wiliam, Dylan, and Siobhán Leahy. Embedding Formative Assessment: Practical Techniques for F-12 Classrooms. West Palm Beach, FL: Learning Sciences, 2015. Print.

 

Read with me? book study: Embedding Formative Assessment

What if we study and practice, together, to embed formative assessment into our daily practice and learning?

Jennifer Wilson (@jwilson828), Kim Thomas (@Kim_math) and I are hosting a virtual book club around Dylan Wiliam’s Embedding Formative Assessment: Practical Techniques for K-12 Classrooms in January and February.

I am intrigued and inspired by the chapter titles. I want to learn more about learning intentions and success criteria, eliciting evidence of learning, feedback that moves learners forward, students serving as resources for each other, and students as owners of their own learning.

If you don’t have the book yet, you can check it out by reading the first chapter from Learning Science’s website.

Here’s our reading plan:

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We want you to join us! We commit to reading one chapter per week and sharing our thinking using #T3Learns. To add a little structure to our reflective practice, we are going to share using the following Visible Thinking Routines.  Of course, we will share other things too.

We choose this reading pace in order to prepare for Dylan Wiliam’s keynote and sessions at the 2016 International T3 Conference in Orlando. We want to be able to ask questions and make connections based on our actions, experiences, successes, and struggles.

Join us! Let’s experiment and learn by doing.

How might we impact learning if we work on intentionally embedding formative assessment into our daily practice and learning?


Cross posted on Easing the Hurry Syndrome.


Ritchhart, Ron, Mark Church, and Karin Morrison. Making Thinking Visible: How to Promote Engagement, Understanding, and Independence for All Learners. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 2011. Print.

Wiliam, Dylan, and Siobhán Leahy. Embedding Formative Assessment: Practical Techniques for F-12 Classrooms. West Palm Beach, FL: Learning Sciences, 2015. Print.

 

productive struggle vs. thrashing blindly

The trick is to choose a goal just beyond your present abilities; to target the struggle. Thrashing blindly doesn’t help. Reaching does. (Coyle, 19 pag.)

What if we teach how to reach? How might we offer targeted struggle for every learner in our care?

SMP-1: Make Sense of Problems and Persevere #LL2LU

Investing time in teaching students how to learn is never wasted; in doing so, you deepen their understanding of the upcoming content and better equip them for future success. (Jackson, 19 pag.)

SMP-8: Look for and Express Regularity in Repeated Reasoning #LL2LU

If we are to harness the power of feedback to increase student learning, then we need to ensure that feedback causes a cognitive rather than an emotional reaction—in other words, feedback should cause thinking. It should be focused; it should relate to the learning goals that have been shared with the students; and it should be more work for the recipient than the donor. (Wiliam, 130 pag.)

Math Flexibility

When people believe their basic qualities can be developed, failures may still hurt, but failures don’t define them.   And if abilities can be expanded – if change and growth are possible – then there are still many paths to success.” (Dweck, 39 pag.)

What pathways to learning are illuminated in order to highlight learning = struggle + perseverance?


Coyle, Daniel (2009-04-16). The Talent Code: Greatness Isn’t Born. It’s Grown. Here’s How. Random House, Inc. Kindle Edition.

Dweck, Carol S. Mindset: the New Psychology of Success. New York: Random House, 2006. 39. Print.

Jackson, Robyn R. (2010-07-27). How to Support Struggling Students (Mastering the Principles of Great Teaching series) (Pages 18-19). Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Kindle Edition.

Wiliam, Dylan (2011-05-01). Embedded Formative Assessment (Kindle Locations 2679-2681). Ingram Distribution. Kindle Edition.

Intent and Action: Assessment for Learning and Formative Assessment

I continue to work on my understanding of formative assessment and actionable feedback.  I’ve been thinking of formative assessment as assessment for learning.  I’ve been saying formative assessment requires feedback that causes action.

In the video below, Dylan Wiliam discusses the subtle difference between assessment for learning and formative assessment.

From the video:
Formative assessment – assessment that actually shapes learning.

“In order to engage in high-quality assessment, teachers need to first identify specific learning targets and then to know whether the targets are asking students to demonstrate their knowledge, reasoning skills, performance skills, or ability to create a quality product. 

“The teacher must also understand what it will take for students to become masters of the learning targets.  

It is not enough that the teacher knows where students are headed; the students must also know where they are headed, and both the teacher and the students must be moving in the same direction.” (Conzemius, O’Neill,  66 pag.)

If we are to continue to learn and improve, how might we create actionable experiences that form learning?


Conzemius, Anne; O’Neill, Jan. The Power of SMART Goals: Using Goals to Improve Student Learning. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree, 2006. Print.