# #ShowYourWork, make sense and persevere, flexibility with @IllustrateMath

How might we learn to show our work so that a reader understanding without having to ask questions? As we work with our young learners, we want them to grow as mathematicians and as communicators.

We ask students to show their work so that a reader understands without having to ask them questions. What details should we add so that our thinking is visible to others?

To show (and to assess) comprehension, we are looking for mathematical flexibility.

I taught 6th grade math today while Kristi and her team attended ASCD.  She asked me to work with our students on showing their work.  Here’s the plan:

Learning goals:

• I can use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems.
• I can show my work so that a reader can understanding without having to ask questions.

Activities:

Learning progressions:

Level 4:
I can demonstrate mathematical flexibility with ratio and rate reasoning to show what I know more than one way using tables, equations, double number lines, etc..

Level 3:
I can use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

Level 2:
I can make tables of equivalent ratios relating quantities with whole-number measurements, and I can use tables to compare ratios.

Level 1:
I can use guess and check to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

Anticipated solutions:

Sample student work:

# productive struggle vs. thrashing blindly

The trick is to choose a goal just beyond your present abilities; to target the struggle. Thrashing blindly doesn’t help. Reaching does. (Coyle, 19 pag.)

What if we teach how to reach? How might we offer targeted struggle for every learner in our care?

Investing time in teaching students how to learn is never wasted; in doing so, you deepen their understanding of the upcoming content and better equip them for future success. (Jackson, 19 pag.)

If we are to harness the power of feedback to increase student learning, then we need to ensure that feedback causes a cognitive rather than an emotional reaction—in other words, feedback should cause thinking. It should be focused; it should relate to the learning goals that have been shared with the students; and it should be more work for the recipient than the donor. (Wiliam, 130 pag.)

When people believe their basic qualities can be developed, failures may still hurt, but failures don’t define them.   And if abilities can be expanded – if change and growth are possible – then there are still many paths to success.” (Dweck, 39 pag.)

What pathways to learning are illuminated in order to highlight learning = struggle + perseverance?

Coyle, Daniel (2009-04-16). The Talent Code: Greatness Isn’t Born. It’s Grown. Here’s How. Random House, Inc. Kindle Edition.

Dweck, Carol S. Mindset: the New Psychology of Success. New York: Random House, 2006. 39. Print.

Jackson, Robyn R. (2010-07-27). How to Support Struggling Students (Mastering the Principles of Great Teaching series) (Pages 18-19). Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Kindle Edition.

Wiliam, Dylan (2011-05-01). Embedded Formative Assessment (Kindle Locations 2679-2681). Ingram Distribution. Kindle Edition.

# What is a Fraction? – visual lesson

What if content isn’t the essential learning? What if content is just the vehicle to learn process?

Imagine these essential learnings:

I can describe and illustrate my thinking so that a reader understands without having to talking with me.

Mathematical flexibility:
I can apply mathematical flexibility to show what I know using more than one method.

Our 5th graders just started a unit on fractions. What if we use fractions to teach our young learners to show their work and demonstrate flexibility of thought?

Lesson tic-toc

• Introduce the two essential learnings.
• 60 second quick write to recall what is a fraction?
• 60 seconds of pair-share to improve answers to what is a fraction?

• Regularly return to the essentials to learn and the associated learning progressions.  How are we doing? At what level are we right now? What is a next step?
• 60 second quick write to recall what are equivalent fractions?
• 60 seconds of pair-share to improve answers to what are equivalent fractions?
• How might we use technology for learning and investigation?

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How might we put process and product on even ground? What if we emphasize communication and flexibility and use content and skill as vehicles to show what you know and how you can communicate?

Level 4
I can analyze different pathways to success, find connections, between pathways, and add new strategies to my thinking.

Level 3
I can apply mathematical flexibility to show what I know using more than one method.

Level 2
I can show my work to document one successful method.

Level 1
I can find and state a correct solution.

Level 4
I can show what I know using words, numbers, and pictures.

Level 3
I can describe and illustrate how I arrived at a solution so that a reader understands without having to talking with me.

Level 2
I can describe or illustrate how I arrived at a solution so that a reader understands without having to talking with me.

Level 1
I can find a correct solution to a task.

# Common denominators – “Let’s see why”

Everybody knows that you must have common denominators to add fractions, right?  Do we know why? If asked to construct a viable argument, could we? Can we draw it (i.e., communicate why visually)?  How mathematically flexible are we when it comes to fractions? From Jo Boaler’s How to Learn Math: for Students:

…we know that what separates high achievers from low achievers is not that high achievers know more math, it is that they interact with numbers flexibly and low achievers don’t.

Today’s Building Concepts lesson: Adding and Subtracting of Fractions with Unlike Denominators, had our young learners working to show their understanding of adding and subtracting fractions in multiple ways.

Kristi Story (@kstorysquared) used a phrase today that has really stuck with me is “Let’s see why…”  It immediately reminded me of Simon Sinek’s How great leaders inspire action.

And it’s those who start with “why” that have the ability to inspire those around them or find others who inspire them.

I wonder if, when young learners struggle with numeracy, it is because they do not see why.  Have they been so concerned with “getting the right answer” that they have missed the theory, reasoning, and geometry?

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What if we  leverage appropriate tools and use them strategically? What if we use technology to personalize learning and offer every learner the opportunity to see why?

#LL2LU draft for use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions.

Level 4:
I can solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers.

Level 3:
I can solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.

Level 2:
I can add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators, including mixed numbers, by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions.

Level 1:
I can understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.

I can recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, and I can explain why the fractions are equivalent using a visual fraction model.

#LL2LU for I can apply mathematical flexibility.

Level 4: I can analyze different pathways to success, find connections between pathways and add new strategies to my thinking.

Level 3: I can apply mathematical flexibility to show what I know using more than one method.

Level 2: I can show my work to document one successful  method.

Level 1: I can find and state a correct solution.

#LL2LU for I can construct a viable argument and critique the reasoning of others.

Level 4: I can build on the viable arguments of others and use their critique and feedback to improve my understanding of the solutions to a task.

Level 3: I can construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

Level 2: I can communicate my thinking for why a conjecture must be true to others, and I can listen to and read the work of others and offer actionable, growth-oriented feedback using I like…, I wonder…, and What if… to help clarify or improve the work.

Level 1: I can recognize given information, definitions, and established results that will contribute to a sound argument for a conjecture.

# Deep Dive into Standards of Mathematical Practice

As a team, we commit to make learning pathways visible. We are working on both horizontal and vertical alignment.  We seek to calibrate our practices with national standards.

On Friday afternoon, we met to take a deep dive into the Standards of Mathematical Practice. Jennifer Wilson joined us to coach, facilitate, and learn. We are grateful for her collaboration, inspiration, and guidance.

The pitch:

The plan:

Goals:

• I can anticipate Standards for Mathematical Practice that learners will employ during this lesson.
• I can begin to design lessons incorporating national standards, a learning progression, and a formative assessment plan.

Norms:

• Safe space
• I can talk about what I know, and I can talk about what I don’t know.
• I can be brave, vulnerable, kind, and considerate to myself and others while learning.
• Celebrate opportunities to learn
• I can learn from mistakes, and I can celebrate what I thought before and now know.

Resources:

Learning Plan:

The learning progressions:

The slide deck:

As a community of learners, we

#ILoveMySchool

# Visual: Encouraging mathematical flexibility #LL2LU

From Jo Boaler’s How to Learn Math: for Students:

People see mathematics in very different ways. And they can be very creative in solving problems. It is important to keep math creativity alive.

and

When you learn math in school, if a teacher shows you a method, think to yourself, what are the other ways of solving this? There are always others. Discuss them with your teacher or friends or parents. This will help you learn deeply.

I keep thinking about mathematical flexibility.  If serious about flexibility, how do we communicate to learners actions that they can take to practice?

How might we narrow what separates high achievers from low achievers? If number flexibility is a gateway to success, what actions are we willing to take to encourage, build confidence, and illuminate multiple pathways to success?

# Encouraging and anticipating mathematical flexibility

From Jo Boaler’s How to Learn Math: for Students:

…we know that what separates high achievers from low achievers is not that high achievers know more math, it is that they interact with numbers flexibly and low achievers don’t.

I wonder how many times I’ve taught “the one way” to solve a problem without considering other pathways for success. Yikes!

After completing Lesson 4 from How to Learn Math: for Students, A-Sunshine, my 4th grader, asked me to solve another multiplication problem.  I wondered how many ways I could show my work and demonstrate flexibility in numeracy.  The urge to solve this multiplication problem in the traditional way was strong, but how many ways could I show how to multiply 44 x 18? How flexible am I when it comes to numeracy? Is the traditional method the most efficient? Are there other ways to show 44 x 18 that might demonstrate understanding?

How might offer opportunities to express flexibility? Will learners share thinking and strategies? How will we facilitate discussions where multiple ways to “be right” are discussed?  What if we embrace Smith and Stein’s 5 Practices for Orchestrating Productive Mathematics Discussion to anticipate, monitor, select, sequence, and make connections between student responses?

If my solutions represent the work and thinking of five different students, in what order would we sequence student sharing, and are we prepared to help make connections between different student responses?

How is flexibility encouraged and practiced? Is it expected? Is it anticipated?

And…does it stop with numbers? I don’t think so.  We want our learners of algebra to be flexible with

• the slope-intercept, point-slope, and standard forms of a line and
• the standard form, vertex form, and factored form of a parabola.

The list could go on and on.

How might we narrow what separates high achievers from low achievers? If number flexibility is a gateway to success, what actions are we willing to take to encourage, build confidence, and illuminate multiple pathways to success?